From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Antique Valentine’s card
Cultural, Christian, commercial
February 14 (in most countries, see text)
Sending greeting cards and gifts, dating
Saint Valentine’s Day, often simply Valentine’s Day, is a holiday observed on February 14 honoring one or more early Christian martyrs named Saint Valentine. It was first established by Pope Gelasius I in 496 AD, and was later deleted from the General Roman Calendar of saints in 1969 by Pope Paul VI.
The day first became associated with romantic love in the circle of Geoffrey Chaucer in the High Middle Ages, when the tradition of courtly love flourished. By the 15th century, it had evolved into an occasion in which lovers expressed their love for each other by presenting flowers, offering confectionery, and sending greeting cards (known as "valentines").
Modern Valentine’s Day symbols include the heart-shaped outline, doves, and the figure of the winged Cupid. Since the 19th century, handwritten valentines have given way to mass-produced greeting cards.
- 1 Saint Valentine
- 2 Attested traditions
- 3 Antique and vintage Valentines, 1850–1950
- 4 Similar days celebrating love
- 5 Conflict with Islamic countries and political parties
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 Related information
For more details on this topic, see Saint Valentine.
Numerous early Christian martyrs were named Valentine. The Valentines honored on February 14 are Valentine of Rome (Valentinus presb. m. Romae) and Valentine of Terni (Valentinus ep. Interamnensis m. Romae). Valentine of Rome was a priest in Rome who was martyred about AD 269 and was buried on the Via Flaminia. His relics are at the Church of Saint Praxed in Rome, and at Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church in Dublin, Ireland.
Valentine of Terni became bishop of Interamna (modern Terni) about AD 197 and is said to have been martyred during the persecution under Emperor Aurelian. He is also buried on the Via Flaminia, but in a different location than Valentine of Rome. His relics are at the Basilica of Saint Valentine in Terni (Basilica di San Valentino).
The Catholic Encyclopedia also speaks of a third saint named Valentine who was mentioned in early martyrologies under date of February 14. He was martyred in Africa with a number of companions, but nothing more is known about him.
No romantic elements are present in the original early medieval biographies of either of these martyrs. By the time a Saint Valentine became linked to romance in the 14th century, distinctions between Valentine of Rome and Valentine of Terni were utterly lost.
Saint Valentine’s head was preserved in the abbey of New Minster, Winchester and venerated. But there is no evidence that Saint Valentine was a popular saint before Chaucer’s poems in 14th century, not even in the area of Winchester. Saint Valentine’s celebration didn’t differ from the celebrations of many other saints, and no church was ever dedicated to him.
In the 1969 revision of the Roman Catholic Calendar of Saints, the feast day of Saint Valentine on February 14 was removed from the General Roman Calendar and relegated to particular (local or even national) calendars for the following reason: "Though the memorial of Saint Valentine is ancient, it is left to particular calendars, since, apart from his name, nothing is known of Saint Valentine except that he was buried on the Via Flaminia on February 14." The feast day is still celebrated in Balzan (Malta) where relics of the saint are claimed to be found, and also throughout the world by Traditionalist Catholics who follow the older, pre-Second Vatican Council calendar. February 14 is also celebrated as St Valentine’s Day in other Christian denominations; it has, for example, the rank of ‘commemoration’ in the calendar of the Church of England and other parts of the Anglican Communion.
Saint Valentine of Terni and his disciples.
The Early Medieval acta of either Saint Valentine were expounded briefly in Legenda Aurea. According to that version, St Valentine was persecuted as a Christian and interrogated by Roman Emperor Claudius II in person. Claudius was impressed by Valentine and had a discussion with him, attempting to get him to convert to Roman paganism in order to save his life. Valentine refused and tried to convert Claudius to Christianity instead. Because of this, he was executed. Before his execution, he is reported to have performed a miracle by healing the blind daughter of his jailer.
Since Legenda Aurea still provided no connections whatsoever with sentimental love, appropriate lore has been embroidered in modern times to portray Valentine as a priest who refused an unattested law attributed to Roman Emperor Claudius II, allegedly ordering that young men remain single. The Emperor supposedly did this to grow his army, believing that married men did not make for good soldiers. The priest Valentine, however, secretly performed marriage ceremonies for young men. When Claudius found out about this, he had Valentine arrested and thrown in jail.
There is an additional modern embellishment to The Golden Legend, provided by American Greetings to History.com, and widely repeated despite having no historical basis whatsoever. On the evening before Valentine was to be executed, he would have written the first "valentine" card himself, addressed to the blind daughter of his jailor Asterius, signing as "From your Valentine."
Main article: Lupercalia
There is no evidence on any link between the modern romantic connotations of modern Saint Valentine’s Day and the rites of the ancient Roman festival, despite many claims by many authors. The celebration of Saint Valentine didn’t have any romantic connotations until Chaucer‘s poetry about "Valentines" in the 14th century.
Popular modern sources link unspecified Greco-Roman February holidays alleged to be devoted to fertility and love to St. Valentine’s Day, but prior to Chaucer in the 14th century, no links between the Saints named Valentinus and romantic love existed. Earlier links as described above were focused on sacrifice rather than romantic love. In the ancient Athenian calendar the period between mid-January and mid-February was the month of Gamelion, dedicated to the sacred marriage of Zeus and Hera.
In Ancient Rome, Lupercalia, observed February 13–15, was an archaic rite connected to fertility. Lupercalia was a festival local to the city of Rome. The more general Festival of Juno Februa, meaning "Juno the purifier "or "the chaste Juno", was celebrated on February 13–14. Pope Gelasius I (492–496) abolished Lupercalia.
Alban Butler in his Lifes of the Principal Saints (1756-1759) claimed without any proof that men and women in Lupercalia drew names from a jar to make couples, and that modern Valentine’s letters originated from this custom. In reality, this practice originated in the Middle Ages, with no link to Lupercalia, with men drawing the names of girls at random to couple with them. This custom was combated by priests, for example by Frances de Sales around 1600, apparently by replacing it with a religious custom of girls drawing the names of apostles from the altar. However, this religious custom is recorded as soon as the 13th century in the life of Saint Elizabeth of Hungary, so it could have a different origin.
Chaucer’s love birds
For this was on seynt Volantynys day
Whan euery bryd comyth there to chese his make.
["For this was Saint Valentine’s Day, when every bird cometh there to choose his mate."]
This poem was written to honor the first anniversary of the engagement of King Richard II of England to Anne of Bohemia. A treaty providing for a marriage was signed on May 2, 1381. (When they were married eight months later, they were each only 15 years old).
Readers have uncritically assumed that Chaucer was referring to February 14 as Valentine’s Day; however, mid-February is an unlikely time for birds to be mating in England. Henry Ansgar Kelly has pointed out that Chaucer could be referring to May 2, the celebration in the liturgical calendar of Valentine of Genoa, an early bishop of Genoa who died around AD 307.
Chaucer’s Parliament of Foules is set in a fictional context of an old tradition, but in fact there was no such tradition before Chaucer. The speculative explanation of sentimental customs, posing as historical fact, had their origins among 18th-century antiquaries, notably Alban Butler, the author of Butler’s Lives of Saints, and have been perpetuated even by respectable modern scholars. Most notably, "the idea that Valentine’s Day customs perpetuated those of the Roman Lupercalia has been accepted uncritically and repeated, in various forms, up to the present".
There were other three authors who made poems about birds mating in Saint Valentine’s Day around the same years: Otton de Grandson from Savoy, John Gower from England, and a knight called Pardo from Valencia. Chaucer most probably predated all of them, but, due to the difficulty of dating medieval works, we can’t know for sure who of the four had the idea first and influenced the others.
Medieval period and the English Renaissance
Using the language of the law courts for the rituals of courtly love, a "High Court of Love" was established in Paris on Valentine’s Day in 1400. The court dealt with love contracts, betrayals, and violence against women. Judges were selected by women on the basis of a poetry reading. The earliest surviving valentine is a 15th-century rondeau written by Charles, Duke of Orléans to his wife, which commences.
Je suis desja d’amour tanné
Ma tres doulce Valentinée…
—Charles d’Orléans, Rondeau VI, lines 1–2
Valentine’s Day is mentioned ruefully by Ophelia in Hamlet (1600–1601):
To-morrow is Saint Valentine’s day,
All in the morning betime,
And I a maid at your window,
To be your Valentine.
Then up he rose, and donn’d his clothes,
And dupp’d the chamber-door;
Let in the maid, that out a maid
Never departed more.
—William Shakespeare, Hamlet, Act IV, Scene 5
John Donne used the legend of the marriage of the birds as the starting point for his Epithalamion celebrating the marriage of Elizabeth, daughter of James I of England, and Frederick V, Elector Palatine on Valentine’s Day:
Hayle Bishop Valentine whose day this is
All the Ayre is thy Diocese
And all the chirping Queristers
And other birds ar thy parishioners
Thou marryest every yeare
The Lyrick Lark, and the graue whispering Doue,
The Sparrow that neglects his life for loue,
The houshold bird with the redd stomacher
Thou makst the Blackbird speede as soone,
As doth the Goldfinch, or the Halcyon
The Husband Cock lookes out and soone is spedd
And meets his wife, which brings her feather-bed.
This day more cheerfully than ever shine
This day which might inflame thy selfe old Valentine.
—John Donne, Epithalamion Vpon Frederick Count Palatine and the Lady Elizabeth marryed on St. Valentines day
She bath’d with roses red, and violets blew,
And all the sweetest flowres, that in the forrest grew.
The modern cliché Valentine’s Day poem can be found in the collection of English nursery rhymes Gammer Gurton’s Garland (1784):
The rose is red, the violet’s blue,
The honey’s sweet, and so are you.
Thou art my love and I am thine;
I drew thee to my Valentine:
The lot was cast and then I drew,
And Fortune said it shou’d be you.
Valentine’s Day postcard, circa 1910
In 1797, a British publisher issued The Young Man’s Valentine Writer, which contained scores of suggested sentimental verses for the young lover unable to compose his own. Printers had already begun producing a limited number of cards with verses and sketches, called "mechanical valentines," and a reduction in postal rates in the next century ushered in the less personal but easier practice of mailing Valentines. That, in turn, made it possible for the first time to exchange cards anonymously, which is taken as the reason for the sudden appearance of racy verse in an era otherwise prudishly Victorian.
Paper Valentines became so popular in England in the early 19th century that they were assembled in factories. Fancy Valentines were made with real lace and ribbons, with paper lace introduced in the mid-19th century. In the UK, just under half of the population spend money on their Valentines and around 1.3 billion pounds are spent yearly on cards, flowers, chocolates and other gifts, with an estimated 25 million cards being sent. The reinvention of Saint Valentine’s Day in the 1840s has been traced by Leigh Eric Schmidt. As a writer in Graham’s American Monthly observed in 1849, "Saint Valentine’s Day… is becoming, nay it has become, a national holyday." In the United States, the first mass-produced valentines of embossed paper lace were produced and sold shortly after 1847 by Esther Howland (1828–1904) of Worcester, Massachusetts.
Child dressed in Valentine’s Day-themed clothing.
Her father operated a large book and stationery store, but Howland took her inspiration from an English Valentine she had received from a business associate of her father. Intrigued with the idea of making similar Valentines, Howland began her business by importing paper lace and floral decorations from England. The English practice of sending Valentine’s cards was established enough to feature as a plot device in Elizabeth Gaskell‘s Mr. Harrison’s Confessions (1851): "I burst in with my explanations: ‘"The valentine I know nothing about." ‘"It is in your handwriting", said he coldly. Since 2001, the Greeting Card Association has been giving an annual "Esther Howland Award for a Greeting Card Visionary."
Since the 19th century, handwritten notes have given way to mass-produced greeting cards. The mid-19th century Valentine’s Day trade was a harbinger of further commercialized holidays in the United States to follow.
In the second half of the 20th century, the practice of exchanging cards was extended to all manner of gifts in the United States. Such gifts typically include roses and chocolates packed in a red satin, heart-shaped box. In the 1980s, the diamond industry began to promote Valentine’s Day as an occasion for giving jewelry.
The U.S. Greeting Card Association estimates that approximately 190 million valentines are sent each year in the US. Half of those valentines are given to family members other than husband or wife, usually to children. When you include the valentine-exchange cards made in school activities the figure goes up to 1 billion, and teachers become the people receiving the most valentines. In some North American elementary schools, children decorate classrooms, exchange cards, and are given sweets. The greeting cards of these students sometimes mention what they appreciate about each other.
The rise of Internet popularity at the turn of the millennium is creating new traditions. Millions of people use, every year, digital means of creating and sending Valentine’s Day greeting messages such as e-cards, love coupons or printable greeting cards. An estimated 15 million e-valentines were sent in 2010.
Antique and vintage Valentines, 1850–1950
Valentines of the mid-19th and early 20th centuries
Esther Howland Valentine, circa 1850: "Weddings now are all the go, Will you marry me or no"?
Handwritten poem, "To Susanna" dated Valentine’s Day, 1850 (Cork, Ireland)
Comic Valentine, mid-19th century: "R stands for rod, which can give a smart crack, And ought to be used For a day on your back."
Valentine card, 1862: "My dearest Miss, I send thee a kiss" addressed to Miss Jenny Lane of Crostwight Hall, Smallburgh, Norfolk.
Folk art Valentine and envelope dated 1875 addressed to Clara Dunn of Newfield, New Jersey
Whitney Valentine, 1887; Howland sold her New England Valentine Company to the George C. Whitney Company in 1881
Seascape Valentine, date unknown
Vinegar Valentine, circa 1900
Postcards, "pop-ups", and mechanical Valentines, circa 1900–1930
Buster Brown Valentine postcard by Richard Felton Outcault, early years of 20th century
Advertisement for Prang’s greeting cards, 1883
Postcard by Nister, circa 1906
Valentine postcard, circa 1900–1910
A tiny 2-inch pop-up Valentine, circa 1920
Football-playing Disney-like rat and bulldog are set in motion by the pull-tab on the right, circa 1920
A grommet affixed to the center of the card permits the dog’s eyes to glance side-to-side when the blue bow is moved
Rocking horse and rider, circa 1920–1930
Similar days celebrating love
In the West
Part of a series on
Types of emotion[show]
- Puppy love
- Love sickness
- Love addiction
- Human sexuality
- Unrequited love
- Valentine’s Day
- Sexual intercourse
- Interpersonal relationship
- Falling in love
While sending cards, flowers, chocolates and other gifts is traditional in the UK, Valentine’s Day has various regional customs. In Norfolk, a character called ‘Jack’ Valentine knocks on the rear door of houses leaving sweets and presents for children. Although he was leaving treats, many children were scared of this mystical person. In Wales, many people celebrate Dydd Santes Dwynwen (St Dwynwen’s Day) on January 25 instead of (or as well as) Valentine’s Day. The day commemorates St Dwynwen, the patron saint of Welsh lovers. In France, a traditionally Catholic country, Valentine’s Day is known simply as "Saint Valentin", and is celebrated in much the same way as other western countries. In Spain Valentine’s Day is known as "San Valentín" and is celebrated the same way as in the UK, although in Catalonia it is largely superseded by similar festivities of rose and/or book giving on La Diada de Sant Jordi (Saint George’s Day). In Portugal it is more commonly referred to as "Dia dos Namorados" (Lover’s Day / Day of those that are in love with each other).
In Denmark and Norway, although February 14 is known as Valentinsdag, it is not celebrated to a large extent, but is largely imported from American culture, and some people take time to eat a romantic dinner with their partner, to send a card to a secret love or give a red rose to their loved one. The cut-flower industry in particular is still working on promoting the holiday. In Sweden it is called Alla hjärtans dag ("All Hearts’ Day") and was launched in the 1960s by the flower industry’s commercial interests, and due to the influence of American culture. It is not an official holiday, but its celebration is recognized and sales of cosmetics and flowers for this holiday are only exceeded by those for Mother’s Day.
In Finland Valentine’s Day is called Ystävänpäivä which translates into "Friend’s day". As the name indicates, this day is more about remembering all your friends, not only your loved ones. In Estonia Valentine’s Day is called Sõbrapäev, which has the same meaning.
In Slovenia, a proverb says that "St Valentine brings the keys of roots", so on February 14, plants and flowers start to grow. Valentine’s Day has been celebrated as the day when the first work in the vineyards and in the fields commences. It is also said that birds propose to each other or marry on that day. Nevertheless, it has only recently been celebrated as the day of love. The day of love is traditionally March 12, the Saint Gregory‘s day. Another proverb says "Valentin – prvi spomladin" ("Valentine — first saint of spring"), as in some places (especially White Carniola) Saint Valentine marks the beginning of spring.
In Romania, the traditional holiday for lovers is Dragobete, which is celebrated on February 24. It is named after a character from Romanian folklore who was supposed to be the son of Baba Dochia. Part of his name is the word drag ("dear"), which can also be found in the word dragoste ("love"). In recent years, Romania has also started celebrating Valentine’s Day, despite already having Dragobete as a traditional holiday. This has drawn backlash from several groups, institutions and nationalist organizations like Noua Dreaptǎ, who condemn Valentine’s Day for being superficial, commercialist and imported Western kitsch.
In Lithuania and Latvia, it is common for people to put stickers on faces and clothing of a friend or a relative. The holiday was first celebrated after the two countries gained independence from Soviet Union in 1990.
Valentine’s Day is called Ημέρα του Αγίου Βαλεντίνου in Greece and Cyprus, which translates into "St Valentines day".Actually in Orthodox church there is an other Saint protect the people are in love,but for Greeks Valentine’s Day is more popular
According to Jewish tradition the 15th day of the month of Av – Tu B’Av (usually late August) is the festival of love. In ancient times girls would wear white dresses and dance in the vineyards, where the boys would be waiting for them (Mishna Taanith end of Chapter 4). In modern Israeli culture this is a popular day to pronounce love, propose marriage and give gifts like cards or flowers.
In some Latin American countries Valentine’s Day is known as "Día del Amor y la Amistad" (Day of Love and Friendship). For example Mexico, Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Puerto Rico, as well as others. It is also common to see people perform "acts of appreciation" for their friends.
In Brazil, the Dia dos Namorados (lit. "Lovers’ Day", or "Boyfriends’/Girlfriends’ Day") is celebrated on June 12, probably because it is the day before Saint Anthony’s day, known there as the marriage saint, when traditionally many single women perform popular rituals, called simpatias, in order to find a good husband or boyfriend. Couples exchange gifts, chocolates, cards and flower bouquets. The February 14’s Valentine’s Day is not celebrated at all, mainly for cultural and commercial reasons, since it usually falls too little before or after Carnival. — that can fall anywhere from early February to early March.
In Venezuela, in 2009, President Hugo Chávez said in a meeting to his supporters for the upcoming referendum vote on February 15, that "since on the 14th, there will be no time of doing nothing, nothing or next to nothing … maybe a little kiss or something very superficial", he recommended people to celebrate a week of love after the referendum vote.
In most of Latin America the Día del amor y la amistad and the Amigo secreto ("Secret friend") are quite popular and usually celebrated together on the 14 of February (one exception is Colombia, where it is celebrated every third Saturday of September). The latter consists of randomly assigning to each participant a recipient who is to be given an anonymous gift (similar to the Christmas tradition of Secret Santa).
In South Korea, similar to Japan, women give chocolate to men on February 14, and men give non-chocolate candy to women on March 14 (White Day). On April 14 (Black Day), those who did not receive anything on the 14th of Feb or March go to a Korean restaurant to eat black noodles (자장면 jajangmyeon) and "mourn" their single life. Koreans also celebrate Pepero Day on November 11, when young couples give each other Pepero cookies. The date ’11/11′ is intended to resemble the long shape of the cookie. The 14th of every month marks a love-related day in Korea, although most of them are obscure. From January to December: Candle Day, Valentine’s Day, White Day, Black Day, Rose Day, Kiss Day, Silver Day, Green Day, Music Day, Wine Day, Movie Day, and Hug Day. Korean women give a much higher amount of chocolate than Japanese women.
In China, the common situation is the man gives chocolate, flowers or both to the woman that he loves. In Chinese, Valentine’s Day is called (simplified Chinese: 情人节; traditional Chinese: 情人節; pinyin: qíng rén jié). The so-called "Chinese Valentine’s Day" is the Qixi Festival, celebrated on the seventh day of the seventh month of the lunar calendar. It commemorates a day on which a legendary cowherder and weaving maid are allowed to be together. Modern Valentine’s Day is also celebrated on February 14 of the solar calendar each year.
In the Philippines, Valentine’s Day is called "Araw ng mga Puso" or "Hearts Day". It is usually marked by a steep increase in the prices of flowers.
In Japan, Morozoff Ltd. introduced the holiday for the first time in 1936, when it ran an advertisement aimed at foreigners. Later in 1953 it began promoting the giving of heart-shaped chocolates; other Japanese confectionery companies followed suit thereafter. In 1958 the Isetan department store ran a "Valentine sale". Further campaigns during the 1960s popularized the custom.
The custom that only women give chocolates to men appears to have originated from the typo of a chocolate-company executive during the initial campaigns. In particular, office ladies give chocolate to their co-workers. Unlike western countries, gifts such as greeting cards, candies, flowers, or dinner dates are uncommon, and most of the activity about the gifts is about giving the right amount of chocolate to each person. Japanese chocolate companies make half their annual sales during this time of the year.
Many women feel obliged to give chocolates to all male co-workers, except when the day falls on a Sunday, a holiday. This is known as giri-choko (義理チョコ), from giri ("obligation") and choko, ("chocolate"), with unpopular co-workers receiving only "ultra-obligatory" chō-giri choko cheap chocolate. This contrasts with honmei-choko (本命チョコ, favorite chocolate), chocolate given to a loved one. Friends, especially girls, may exchange chocolate referred to as tomo-choko (友チョコ); from tomo meaning "friend".
In the 1980s the Japanese National Confectionery Industry Association launched a successful campaign to make March 14 a "reply day", where men are expected to return the favour to those who gave them chocolates on Valentine’s Day, calling it White Day for the color of the chocolates being offered. A previous failed attempt to popularize this celebration had been done by a marshmallow manufacturer who wanted men to return marshmallows to women.
Men are expected to return gifts that are at least two or three times more valuable than the gifts received in Valentine’s Day. Not returning the gift is perceived as the man placing himself in a position of superiority, even if excuses are given. Returning a present of equal value is considered as a way to say that you are cutting the relationship. Originally only chocolate was given, but now the gifts of jewelry, accessories, clothing and lingerie are usual. According to the official website of White Day, the color white was chosen because it’s the color of purity, evoking "pure, sweet teen love", and because it’s also the color of sugar. The initial name was "Ai ni Kotaeru White Day" (Answer Love on White Day).
In a 2006 survey of people between 10 and 49 years of age in Japan, Oricon Style found the 1986 Sayuri Kokushō single, Valentine Kiss, to be the most popular Valentine’s Day song, even though it sold only 317,000 copies. The singles it beat in the ranking were number one selling Love Love Love from Dreams Come True (2,488,630 copies) and Valentine’s Radio from Yumi Matsutoya (1,606,780 copies). The final song in the top five was My Funny Valentine by Miles Davis.
Similar Asian traditions
In Chinese culture, there is an older observance related to lovers, called "The Night of Sevens" (Chinese: 七夕; pinyin: Qi Xi). According to the legend, the Cowherd star and the Weaver Maid star are normally separated by the milky way (silvery river) but are allowed to meet by crossing it on the 7th day of the 7th month of the Chinese calendar.
In Japan, a slightly different version of 七夕 called Tanabata has been celebrated for centuries, on July 7 (Gregorian calendar). It has been considered by Westerners as similar to St. Valentine’s Day, but it’s not related to it, and its origins are completely different.
In India, in the antiquity, there was a tradition of adoring Kamadeva, the lord of love; exemplificated by the erotic carvings in the Khajuraho Group of Monuments and by the writing of the Kamasutra treaty of lovemaking. This tradition was lost around the Middle Ages, when Kamadeva was no longer celebrated, and public displays of sexual affections became frowned upon. Around 1992 Valentine’s Day started catching in India, with special TV and radio programs, and even love letter competitions. The economic liberalization also helped the Valentine card industry.
In modern times, Hindu and Islamic traditionalists consider the holiday to be cultural contamination from the West, result of the globalization in India. Shiv Sena and the Sangh Parivar have asked their followers to shun the holiday and the "public admission of love" because of them being "alien to Indian culture". These protests are organized by political elites, but the protesters themselves are middle-class Hindu men who fear that the globalization will destroy the traditions in his society: arranged marriages, Hindu joint families, full-time mothers (see Housewife#India), etc.
Despite these obstacles, Valentine’s Day is becoming increasingly popular in India.
However, leftist and liberal critiques of Valentine’s Day remain strong in India. Valentine’s Day has been strongly criticized from a postcolonial perspective by intellectuals from the Indian left . The holiday is regarded as a front for Western imperialism, neocolonialism, and the exploitation of working classes through commercialism by multinational corporations. Studies have shown that Valentine’s Day promotes and exacerbates income inequality in India, and aids in the creation of a pseudo-westernized middle class. As a result, the working classes and rural poor become more disconnected socially, politically, and geographically from the hegemonic capitalist power structure. They also criticize mainstream media attacks on Indians opposed to Valentine’s Day as a form of demonization that is designed and derived to further the Valentine’s Day agenda.
In Iran, the Sepandarmazgan, or Esfandegan, is an age-old traditional celebration of love, friendship and Earth. It has nothing in common with the Saint Valentine celebration, except for a superficial similarity in giving affection and gifts to loved ones, and its origins and motivations are completely unrelated. It has been progressively forgotten in favor of the Western celebration of Valentine’s Day. The Association of Iran’s Cultural and Natural Phenomena has been trying since 2006 to make Sepandarmazgan a national holiday on 17 February, in order to replace the Western holiday.
In Israel, the Tu B’Av, is considered to be the Jewish Valentine’s Day following the ancient traditions of courtship on this day. Today, this is celebrated as a second holiday of love by secular people (besides Saint Valentine’s Day), and shares many of the customs associated with Saint Valentine’s Day in western societies.
Conflict with Islamic countries and political parties
In Saudi Arabia, in 2002 and 2011, religious police banned the sale of all Valentine’s Day items, telling shop workers to remove any red items, as the day is considered a Christian holiday. In 2008 this ban created a black market of roses and wrapping paper.
Concept of Valentine’s Day first introduced in Pakistan during late 1990s with special TV and radio programs. The Jamaat-e-Islami political party has called for the banning of Valentine’s Day celebration. Despite this, the celebration is becoming popular among urban youth and the florists expect to sell great amount of flowers, especially red roses. Same is the case with card publishers. However, public at large still consider Valentine’s Day as opposed to Pakistani culture and Islamic teachings.
In the first part of the 21st century, the celebration of Valentine’s Day in Iran has been harshly criticized by Islamic Teachers who see the celebrations as opposed to Islamic culture. In 2011, the Iranian printing works owners’ union issued a directive banning the printing and distribution of any goods promoting the holiday, including cards, gifts and teddy bears. "Printing and producing any goods related to this day including posters, boxes and cards emblazoned with hearts or half-hearts, red roses and any activities promoting this day are banned… Outlets that violate this will be legally dealt with", the union warned.
Islamic officials in Malaysia warned Muslims against celebrating Valentine’s Day, linking it with vice activities. Deputy Prime Minister Muhyiddin Yassin said the celebration of romantic love was "not suitable" for Muslims. Wan Mohamad Sheikh Abdul Aziz, head of the Malaysian Islamic Development Department (Jakim), which oversees the country’s Islamic policies said a fatwa (ruling) issued by the country’s top clerics in 2005 noted the day ‘is associated with elements of Christianity,’ and ‘we just cannot get involved with other religion’s worshipping rituals.’ Jakim officials planned to carry out a nationwide campaign called "Awas Jerat Valentine’s Day"("Mind the Valentine’s Day Trap"), aimed at preventing Muslims from celebrating the day on 14 February 2011. Activities include conducting raids in hotels to stop young couples from having unlawful sex and distributing leaflets to Muslim university students warning them against the day.
On Valentine’s Day 2011, Malaysian religious authorities arrested more than 100 Muslim couples concerning the celebration ban. Some of them would be charged in the Shariah Court for defying the department’s ban againsts the celebration of Valentine’s Day.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Valentine’s Day
- Sailor’s Valentines
- Saint Valentine’s Day massacre
- Vinegar valentines
- V-Day, the global movement to end violence against women and girls.
- Women’s Memorial March, held on Valentine’s Day in Vancouver, British Columbia.
- ^ a b The History of Valentine’s Day – History.com, A&E Television Networks. Retrieved February 2, 2010.
- ^ History of Valentine’s Day Christianity Today International. Retrieved February 2, 2010; "Then Again Maybe Don’t Be My Valentine", Ted Olsen, 2000-01-02
- ^ a b HowStuffWorks "How Valentine’s Day works" – HowStuffWorks. Retrieved February 2, 2010.
- ^ a b Leigh Eric Schmidt, "The Fashioning of a Modern Holiday: St. Valentine’s Day, 1840–1870" Winterthur Portfolio 28.4 (Winter 1993), pp. 209–245.
- ^ Henry Ansgar Kelly, in Chaucer and the Cult of Saint Valentine (Leiden: Brill) 1986, accounts for these and further local Saints Valentine (Ch. 6 "The Genoese Saint Valentine and the observances of May") in arguing that Chaucer had an established tradition in mind, and (pp 79ff) linking the Valentine in question to Valentine, first bishop of Genoa, the only Saint Valentine honoured with a feast in springtime, the season indicated by Chaucer. Valentine of Genoa was treated by Jacobus of Verazze in his Chronicle of Genoa (Kelly p. 85).
- ^ Oxford Dictionary of Saints, s.v. "Valentine": "The Acts of both are unreliable, and the Bollandists assert that these two Valentines were in fact one and the same."
- ^ "Valentine of Rome". http://www.catholic-forum.com/saints/saintv06.htm. , catholic-forum.com
- ^ "Saint Valentine’s Day: Legend of the Saint". novareinna.com. http://www.novareinna.com/festive/saintval.html.
- ^ "Valentine of Terni". catholic-forum.com. http://www.catholic-forum.com/saints/saintv90.htm.
- ^ "Basilica of Saint Valentine in Terni". virtualmuseum.ca. http://www.virtualmuseum.ca/Exhibitions/Valentin/English/6/622.php3.
- ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia: St. Valentine". newadvent.org. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15254a.htm.
- ^ The present Roman Martyrology records, at February 14, "In Rome, on the Via Flaminia near the Milvian Bridge: St. Valentine, martyr."
- ^ a b c d e f Henry Ansgar Kelly (1986), "The Valentines of February", Chaucer and the cult of Saint Valentine, Davis medieval texts and studies, 5, BRILL, pp. 58-63, ISBN 9789004078499, http://books.google.es/books?id=_bqdZbKPztMC&pg=PA60&dq=saint+valentine’s+lupercalia+year&hl=en&sa=X&ei=uXI4T8CgLITX0QWB4OiSAg&ved=0CDYQ6AEwATgK#v=onepage&q=saint%20valentine’s%20lupercalia%20year&f=false
- ^ Calendarium Romanum ex Decreto Sacrosancti Œcumenici Concilii Vaticani II Instauratum Auctoritate Pauli PP. VI Promulgatum (Typis Polyglottis Vaticanis, MCMLXIX), p. 117
- ^ See February calendar listed here [dead link] on the Church of England website.
- ^ Legenda Aurea, "Saint Valentine", catholic-forum.com.
- ^ "The History of Valentine’s Day". History.com. http://www.history.com/minisite.do?content_type=Minisite_Generic&content_type_id=882&display_order=1&sub_display_order=1&mini_id=1084.
- ^ Michael Matthew Kaylor (2006), Secreted Desires: The Major Uranians: Hopkins, Pater and Wilde (electronic ed.), Masaryk University Press, p. footnote 2 in page 235, ISBN 80-210-4126-9, http://books.google.es/books?id=-Wa7SIsAQgAC&pg=PA235&dq=saint+valentine’s+day+lupercalia&hl=en&sa=X&ei=dFo4T8LQHamQ0AWeicGjDA&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=saint%20valentine’s%20day%20lupercalia&f=false
- ^ a b Jack B. Oruch, "St. Valentine, Chaucer, and Spring in February" Speculum 56.3 (July 1981:534–565)
- ^ Oruch, Jack B., "St. Valentine, Chaucer, and Spring in February", Speculum, 56 (1981): 534–65. Oruch’s survey of the literature finds no association between Valentine and romance prior to Chaucer. He concludes that Chaucer is likely to be "the original mythmaker in this instance." Colfa.utsa.edu
- ^ "Henry Ansgar Kelly, Valentine’s Day / UCLA Spotlight". http://spotlight.ucla.edu/faculty/henry-kelly_valentine/.
- ^ "Chaucer: The Parliament of Fowls". http://www.wsu.edu/~delahoyd/chaucer/PF.html. , wsu.edu
- ^ Kelly, Henry Ansgar, Chaucer and the Cult of Saint Valentine (Brill Academic Publishers, 1997), ISBN 90-04-07849-5. Chapter 6 The Genoese St. Valentine, p. 79. Kelly gives the saint’s day of the Genoese Valentine as May 3 and also claims that Richard’s engagement was announced on this day. Iol.co.za[dead link]
- ^ Oruch 1981:539.
- ^ Ansgar, 1986, Chapter 5, Grandson, Pardo and Gower, pp. 64-76
- ^ "Domestic Violence, Discourses of Romantic Love, and Complex Personhood in the Law". Melbourne University Law Review 211 (Austlii.edu.au). 1999. http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/MULR/1999/8.html. Retrieved 2011-08-06.
- ^ "Court of Love: Valentine’s Day, 1400". http://www.virtualmuseum.ca/Exhibitions/Valentin/English/4/422.php3. , virtualmuseum.ca
- ^ A Farewell to Love in wikisource
- ^ History Channel, historychannel.com.
- ^ Spenser, The Faery Queene iii, Canto 6, Stanza 6: on-line text
- ^ Gammer Gurton’s Garland (London, 1784) in I. Opie and P. Opie, The Oxford Dictionary of Nursery Rhymes (Oxford University Press, 1951, 2nd edn., 1997), p. 375.
- ^ Gammer Gurton’s Garland, original 1810 version. Also 1810 version reprinted in 1866 that uses more modern grammar like "should" instead of "shou’d".
- ^ Charles Panati (1987). Extraordinary origins of everyday things. p.57. Perennial Library, 1987
- ^ Vivian Krug Hotchkiss, Emotions Greeting Cards, VH Productions, email@example.com (1910-02-14). "Emotionscards.com". Emotionscards.com. http://www.emotionscards.com/museum/vals.html. Retrieved 2011-08-06.
- ^ "Valentine’s Day worth £1.3 Billion to UK Retailers". British Retail Consortium. http://www.brc.org.uk/details04.asp?id=1091&kCat=&kData=1.
- ^ Schmidt 1993:209–245.
- ^ Quoted in Schmidt 1993:209.
- ^ a b c "Americans Valentine’s Day". U.S. Greeting Card Association. 2010. http://www.greetingcard.org/userfiles/file/2010%20Valentines%20Day.pdf. Retrieved 2010-02-16. [dead link]
- ^ a b Eve Devereux (2006). Love & Romance Facts, Figures & Fun (illustrated ed.). AAPPL. p. 28. ISBN 1904332331. http://books.google.com/?id=MCAC8mnwEIEC
- ^ Hobbies, Volume 52, Issues 7–12 p.18. Lightner Pub. Co., 1947
- ^ a b Vivian Krug Hotchkiss, Emotions Greeting Cards, VH Productions, firstname.lastname@example.org. "Esther Howland". Emotionscards.com. http://www.emotionscards.com/museum/estherhowland.htm. Retrieved 2011-08-06.
- ^ Dean, Dorothy (1990) On the Collectible Trail p.90. Discovery Publications, 1990
- ^ Gaskell, Elizabeth Cranford and Selected Short Stories p.258. Wordsworth Editions, 2006
- ^ Leigh Eric Schmidt, "The Commercialization of the calendar: American holidays and the culture of consumption, 1870–1930" Journal of American History 78.3 (December 1991) pp 890–98.
- ^ Valentine`s Day versus Dragobete, cultura.ro (Romanian)
- ^ Notimex. "Realizará GDF cuarta feria por Día del Amor y la Amistad". milenio.com. http://www.milenio.com/node/380160. [dead link]
- ^ Alexander Sanchez C. (2010-02-12). "El cine transpiraamores y desamores". La Nación (La Nación (San José)). http://www.nacion.com/viva/2010/febrero/12/tiempolibre2234449.html [dead link]
- ^ "Sacoto canta por San Valentín". El Comercio. http://ww1.elcomercio.com/noticiaEC.asp?id_noticia=334553&id_seccion=7. "El cantante y compositor presentará un show romántico por el Día del Amor y la Amistad." [dead link]
- ^ "Para quererte". El Periódico de Guatemala. 2010-02-10. http://www.elperiodico.com.gt/es/20100210/opinion/137067/
- ^ História do Dia dos Namorados no Brasil e no mundo, São Valentim, data 12 de junho, tradição suapesquisa.com – Datas Comemorativas
- ^ The Psychology of Carnaval, TIME Magazine, February 14, 1969
- ^ Video of Chavez joking about Valentine’s day, youtube.com, 2009-01-31
- ^ Domingo, Ronnel. Among Asians, Filipinos dig Valentine’s Day the most. Philippine Daily Inquirer, February 14, 2008. Retrieved 21 February 2008.
- ^ a b c d Risa Yoshimura (2006-02-14). "No matter where you’re from, Valentine’s Day still means the same". The Pacer 78 (18). http://pacer.utm.edu/2926.htm [dead link]
- ^ Korea rivals U.S. in romantic holidays[dead link], Centre Daily Times, February 14, 2009.
- ^ a b c Gordenker, A. "So, what the heck is that? White Day". in Japan Times. (March 21, 2006).. Retrieved June 30, 2007.
- ^ a b c Katherine Rupp (2003). Gift-giving in Japan: cash, connections, cosmologies (illustrated ed.). Stanford University Press. pp. 149–151. ISBN 0804747040. http://books.google.com/?id=KHkyUp-EH2MC&lpg=PA150&dq=japan%20valentine’s%20day&pg=PA145#v=onepage&q=japan%20valentine’s%20day
- ^ a b c d Chris Yeager (2009-02-13). Valentine’s Day in Japan. Japan America Society of Greater Philadelphia (JASGP). http://jasgp.org/content/view/636/179/
- ^ Yuko Ogasawara (1998). University of California Press. ed. Office Ladies and Salaried Men: Power, Gender, and Work in Japanese Companies (illustrated ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 98–113, 142–154, 156, 163. ISBN 0520210441. http://books.google.com/?id=9_yjfAZo4jIC&pg=PA98&vq=valentine+day&dq=japan+chocolate+saint+valentin.
- ^ Ron Huza (he was an ESL in Japan for 11 years) (2007-02-14). "Lost in translation: The cultural divide over Valentine’s Day". The Gazette. http://www.canada.com/montrealgazette/news/editorial/story.html?id=2ae6a44a-2f29-45a3-a257-2a13b3d3149d
- ^ a b "大公開！『バレンタインソング』といえばこの曲！ [The Great Exhibition! When speaking of a "Valentine song", this is the song!]" (in Japanese). Oricon Style. February 3, 2006. Archived from the original on March 17, 2010. http://www.webcitation.org/5oIA3Hpll. Retrieved March 17, 2010.
- ^ Caprice Reflections AuthorHouse, 2007
- ^ E.I.S. (1925-02-15). "Japan has a Valentine Day based on a tender legend". New York Times. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F20612FD395B12738DDDAC0994DA405B858EF1D3
- ^ a b c d "India’s fascination with Valentine’s Day. The BBC’s Vijay Rana explains how Valentine’s Day has replaced more traditional celebrations of love in India". BBC. 14 February 2002. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/1820440.stm
- ^ a b c d Steve Derné (2008). "7. Globalizing gender culture. Transnational cultural flows and the intensification of male dominance in India". In Kathy E. Ferguson, Monique Mironesco. Gender and globalization in Asia and the Pacific: method, practice, theory. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 127–129. ISBN 0824832418, 9780824832414. http://books.google.com/books?id=60o6NLFlbhoC
- ^ a b George Monger (2004). Marriage customs of the world: from henna to honeymoons (illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1576079872, 9781576079874. http://books.google.es/books?id=o8JlWxBYs40C
- ^ Anil Mathew Varughese (2003). "Globalization versus cultural authenticity? Valentine’s Day and Hindu values". In Richard Sandbrook. Civilizing globalization: a survival guide. SUNY series in radical social and political theory (illustrated ed.). SUNY Press. p. 53. ISBN 0791456676, 9780791456675. http://books.google.es/books?id=XSZD-bpo3S8C
- ^ a b Hindu and Muslim anger at Valentine’s. BBC. 2003-02-11. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/2749667.stm
- ^ Sharma, Satya (1996). "The cultural costs of a globalized economy for India". Dialectical Anthropology 21 (3–4): 299–316. doi:10.1007/BF00245771.
- ^ Mankekar, Purnima (1999). Screening, Culture, Viewing Politics: An Ethnography of Television, Womanhood Nation in Postcolonial India. Duke University Press. ISBN 0822323907.
- ^ As quoted in ‘India Today: Pot Pourri Generation’ 15th September issue, 2005
- ^ Esfandegan to Replace Valentine. Iran Daily. 2008-12-31. p. 6. http://www.nitc.co.ir/iran-daily/1387/3307/pdf/i6.pdf , nitc.co.ir
- ^ "Cooling the ardour of Valentine’s Day". BBC News. 3 February 2002. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1818642.stm.
- ^ a b "Saudis clamp down on valentines". BBC News. 11 February 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/7239005.stm.
- ^ Flower sellers await Valentine’s Day. The Nation. 2010-02-08. http://www.nation.com.pk/pakistan-news-newspaper-daily-english-online/Regional/Islamabad/08-Feb-2010/Flower-sellers-await-Valentines-Day
- ^ Iran shops banned from selling Valentine gifts, AFP 02-01-2010
- ^ Iran snubs Valentine’s Day[dead link], AP (published in The Washington Post) 02-01-2010
- ^ "Malaysian Muslims warned against Valentine’s Day". The Straits Times. 2011-02-13. http://www.straitstimes.com/BreakingNews/SEAsia/Story/STIStory_634485.html.
- ^ "Malaysia Warns Muslims of Valentine’s Day Trap". BBC News. 2011-02-13. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific-12443104.
- ^ "Malaysia Arrests 100 Muslim Couples for Celebrating Lovers’ Day". The Jakarta Globe. http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/home/malaysia-arrests-100-muslim-couples-for-celebrating-lovers-day/422743. Retrieved 2011-08-06.
- Christmas Day
- Columbus Day
- Independence Day
- Labor Day
- Martin Luther King, Jr. Day
- Memorial Day
- New Year’s Day
- Veterans Day
- Washington’s Birthday (Presidents Day)
- Alabama Day (AL)
- Alaska Day (AK)
- Arbor Day (NE)
- Bennington Battle Day (VT)
- Casimir Pulaski Day (IL)
- César Chávez Day (CA, CO, TX)
- Christmas Eve (KY, NC)
- Confederate Heroes Day (TX)
- Confederate Memorial Day (AL, FL, GA, MS, SC)
- Day After Thanksgiving (DE)
- Election Day (CA, DE, HI, KY, MT, NJ, NY, OH, WV)
- Emancipation Day In Texas / Juneteenth (TX)
- Emancipation Day (DC)
- Evacuation Day (MA)
- Family Day (NV)
- Flag Day (FL, PA)
- Georgia Day (GA)
- Good Friday (CT, NC)
- Harvey Milk Day (CA)
- Hawaii Admission Day / Statehood Day (HI)
- Idaho Human Rights Day (ID)
- Indiana Day (IN)
- Jefferson’s Birthday (AL)
- Jefferson Davis Day (AL, FL)
- Kamehameha Day (HI)
- Lee–Jackson Day (VA)
- Lincoln’s Birthday (CA, CT, IL, MO, NJ, NY, IN, WV)
- Lyndon Baines Johnson Day (TX)
- Mardi Gras (FL, LA)
- Maryland Day (MD)
- Missouri Day (MO)
- Native American Day (SD)
- Native American Heritage Day (MD)
- Nevada Day (NV)
- New Jersey Day (NJ)
- New Year’s Eve (KY)
- Pascua Florida Day (FL)
- Patriots’ Day (ME, MA)
- Pioneer Day (UT)
- Primary Election Day (WI)
- Prince Jonah Kuhio Kalanianaole Day (HI)
- Robert E. Lee Day (FL, GA)
- Ronald Reagan Day (CA)
- Rosa Parks Day (CA,OH)
- Rosh Hashanah (TX)
- San Jacinto Day (TX)
- Service Reduction Day (MD)
- Seward’s Day (AK)
- Susan B. Anthony Day (FL, WI, WV)
- Texas Independence Day (TX)
- Town Meeting Day (VT)
- Truman Day (MO)
- Victory Day (RI)
- West Virginia Day (WV)
- Yom Kippur (TX)
Municipal holidays with national significance
- Carl Garner Federal Lands Cleanup Day
- Child Health Day
- Constitution Day
- Father’s Day
- Gold Star Mothers Day
- Law Day
- Loyalty Day
- Leif Erikson Day
- Mother’s Day
- National Aviation Day
- National Day of Prayer
- National Defense Transportation Day
- National Freedom Day
- National Grandparents Day
- National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day
- National Maritime Day
- Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day
- Pan American Aviation Day
- Parents’ Day
- Patriot Day
- Peace Officers Memorial Day
- Stephen Foster Memorial Day
- White Cane Safety Day
- Women’s Equality Day
- Wright Brothers Day
Holidays with religious significance
- Ash Wednesday
- Christmas Day
- Courir de Mardi Gras
- Easter Monday
- Easter Sunday
- Good Friday
- Mardi Gras
- Palm Sunday
- Rosh Hashanah
- Saint Joseph’s Day
- Saint Patrick’s Day
- Valentine’s Day
- Yom Kippur
(includes Commercial holidays)
- Cinco de Mayo
- Earth Day
- Four Chaplains Day
- Free Comic Book Day
- General Pulaski Memorial Day
- Groundhog Day
- May Day
- New Year’s Eve
- Sweetest Day
- Walpurgis Night
(or multiple weeks)
- Chinese New Year
- Constitution Week
- Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust
- Honor America Days
- National Payroll Week
- National Poison Prevention Week
- American Heart Month
- Asian Pacific American Heritage Month
- Black History Month
- Confederate History Month
- Gay and Lesbian Pride Month
- Jewish American Heritage Month
- LGBT History Month
- National Breast Cancer Awareness Month
- National Hispanic Heritage Month
- Women’s History Month
Día del Ejército ·Día de la Bandera ·Aniversario de la Expropiación petrolera ·Heroica Defensa de Veracruz ·Cinco de Mayo ·Natalicio de Miguel Hidalgo ·Día de la Marina ·Grito de Dolores ·Día de los Niños Héroes · Consumación de la Independencia ·Natalicio de José Ma. Morelos y Pavón ·Descubrimiento de América
Día de los Santos Reyes ·Día de San Valentín ·Día del Niño ·Día de las Madres ·Día del Maestro · Día del estudiante ·Día del Padre ·Día de Todos los Santos · Día de los Fieles Difuntos · Día de la Virgen de Guadalupe ·Las Posadas ·Nochebuena · Dia de los Santos Inocentes
View page ratings
Rate this page
Rate this page
Current average ratings.
I am highly knowledgeable about this topic (optional)
I have a relevant college/university degree
It is part of my profession
It is a deep personal passion
The source of my knowledge is not listed here
I would like to help improve Wikipedia, send me an e-mail (optional)
We will send you a confirmation e-mail. We will not share your e-mail address with outside parties as per our feedback privacy statement.
Your ratings have not been submitted yet
Your ratings have expired
Please reevaluate this page and submit new ratings.
An error has occured. Please try again later.
Thanks! Your ratings have been saved.
Please take a moment to complete a short survey.
Start surveyMaybe later
Thanks! Your ratings have been saved.
Do you want to create an account?
An account will help you track your edits, get involved in discussions, and be a part of the community.
Create an accountorLog inMaybe later
Thanks! Your ratings have been saved.
Did you know that you can edit this page?
Edit this pageMaybe later
- All articles with dead external links
- Articles with dead external links from August 2011
- Articles with dead external links from August 2010
- Articles with Romanian language external links
- Articles with dead external links from May 2010
- Articles with inconsistent citation formats
- Wikipedia semi-protected pages
- Articles containing simplified Chinese language text
- Articles containing traditional Chinese language text
- Articles containing Chinese language text
- All articles with unsourced statements
- Articles with unsourced statements from April 2011
- Wikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2011
- What links here
- Related changes
- Upload file
- Special pages
- Permanent link
- Cite this page
- Rate this page
- Bahasa Indonesia
- Basa Jawa
- Кырык мары
- Bahasa Melayu
- Nēhiyawēwin / ᓀᐦᐃᔭᐍᐏᐣ
- नेपाल भाषा
- Norsk (bokmål)
- Norsk (nynorsk)
- Олык Марий
- Simple English
- Srpskohrvatski / Српскохрватски
- Tiếng Việt
- This page was last modified on 14 February 2012 at 03:37.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.
- Contact us