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Easter Monday

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Easter Monday is the day after Easter Sunday and is celebrated as a holiday in some largely Christian cultures, especially Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox cultures. Easter Monday in the Roman Catholic liturgical calendar is the second day of the octave of Easter Week and analogously in the Eastern Orthodox Church is the second day of Bright Week.

[edit] Festivities

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Formerly, the post-Easter festivities involved a week of secular celebration, but in many places this was reduced to one day in the 19th century. Events include egg rolling competitions and, in predominantly Roman Catholic countries, dousing other people with water which traditionally had been blessed with holy water the day before at Easter Sunday Mass and carried home to bless the house and food.

[edit] Eastern Orthodox Celebration

Main article: Bright Week

Blessing with holy water during an Eastern Orthodox Bright Week procession.

In the Eastern Orthodox Church[note 1] Easter Monday is known as "Bright Monday" or "Renewal Monday". The services that day, as in the rest of Bright Week, are quite different than during the rest of the year and are similar to the services on Pascha (Easter Sunday) and include an outdoor procession after the Divine Liturgy; while this is prescribed for all days of that week, often they are only celebrated on Monday and maybe a couple of other days in parish churches, especially in non-Orthodox countries. Also, when the calendar date of the feast day of a major saint, e.g., St. George or the patron saint of a church or one’s name day, falls during Holy Week or on Easter Sunday, the saint’s day is celebrated on Easter Monday.[1][2]

It is customarily a day for visiting family and friends.[citation needed]

[edit] Australia

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In Australia, Easter Monday is a public holiday. People enjoy outdoor sporting events, such as the Oakbank Easter Racing Carnival in South Australia, Australian Three Peaks Race in Tasmania as well as the Stawell Gift.

[edit] Egypt

In Egypt, the ancient festival of Sham El Nessim (Arabic: شم النسيم‎, literally meaning "smelling of the breeze") is celebrated on the Coptic (i.e. Eastern) Easter Monday, though the festival dates back to Pharonic times (about 2700 BC). It is celebrated by both Egyptian Christians and Muslims as an Egyptian national holiday rather than as a religious one. Traditional activities include painting eggs, taking meals outdoors, and eating feseekh (fermented mullet).

[edit] Central and Eastern Europe

Michał Elwiro Andriolli – "Dyngus"

Handmade whip decorated with ribbons called pomlázka, in Slovakia called korbáč

Dingus Day or Wet Monday (Polish Śmigus-Dingus or lany poniedziałek) is the name for Easter Monday in Poland. In the Czech Republic it is called velikonoční pondělí or pomlázka. In Slovakia veľkonočný pondelok (Easter Monday) is called Šibačka/Polievačka or Oblievačka. too. In Hungary Locsolkodás. All countries practice a unique custom on this day.

In Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic[5] traditionally, early in the morning boys awake girls by pouring a bucket of water on their head and striking them about the legs with long thin twigs or switches made from willow, birch or decorated tree branches; however, the earliest documented[citation needed] records of Dingus Day in Poland are from the 15th century, almost half a millennium after Poland adopted Christianity.

Benedykt Chmielowski in Nowe Ateny cite after "Carolo Berthold" that this ritual was already in custom in 750, 250 years before Poland officially adopted Christianity. See religious syncretism.

One theory is that Dingus originates from the baptism on Easter Monday of Mieszko I (Duke of the Polans, c. 935–992) in 966 AD, uniting all of Poland under the banner of Christianity. Dingus and Śmigus were twin pagan gods; the former representing water and the moist earth (Dingus from din gus – thin soup or dingen – nature); and the latter representing thunder and lightning (Śmigus from śmigać or to make a whooshing sound). In this theory, the water tradition is the transformation of the pagan water god into the Christian baptism. The custom of pouring water was an ancient spring rite of cleansing, purification, and fertility. It is alleged that the pagan Poles bickered with nature/Dingus by means of pouring water and switching with willows to make themselves pure and worthy of the coming year. Others have suggested that the striking tradition is the transformation of the ritual "slap" of Christian confirmation. However, still others suggest that the Śmigus tradition is actually simply a youthful recapitulation of a Good Friday Polish tradition, in which parents wake their children with switches from twigs, saying the words of a Lenten prayer "God’s wounds" – "Boże rany".

Early, the Dingus custom was clearly differentiated from śmigus: Dingus was the exchange of gifts (usually eggs, often decorated – pisanka pl. pisanki), under the threat of water splashing if one party did not have any eggs ready, while Śmigus referred to the striking.

Later the focus shifted to the courting aspect of the ritual, and young unmarried girls were the only acceptable targets. A boy would sneak into the bedroom of the girl he fancied and awaken her by drenching her with multiple buckets of water. Politics played an important role in proceedings, and often the boy would get access to the house only by arrangement with the girl’s mother.

Throughout the day, girls would find themselves the victims of drenchings and leg-whippings, and a daughter who was not targeted for such activities was generally considered to be unattractive and unmarryable in this very coupling-oriented environment.

Most recently, the tradition has changed to become fully water-focused, and the śmigus part is almost forgotten. It is quite common for girls to attack boys just as fiercely. With much of Poland’s population residing in tall apartment buildings, high balconies are favorite hiding places for young people who gleefully empty buckets of water or more recently throw plastic bags or water balloons onto random passers-by.

Another related custom, unique to Poland is that of sprinkling bowls (garce) of ashes on people (starts men on women) or houses, celebrated a few weeks earlier at the "półpoście." This custom is almost forgotten, but still practiced in the area around borders of Mazuria and Masovia.

[edit] United States

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This section relies on references to primary sources or sources affiliated with the subject, rather than references from independent authors and third-party publications. Please add citations from reliable sources. (October 2009)

Two boys enjoy treats during the annual Easter egg roll at the White House lawn on Easter Monday, 1911

Though not largely observed in the United States, the day remains informally observed in some areas such as the state of North Dakota, and some cities in New York, Michigan, and Indiana. Easter Monday was a public holiday in North Carolina from 1935 to 1987. Texas and Maryland schools often have two holidays on Good Friday and Easter Monday.

Traditionally Polish areas of the country such as Chicago, and more recently Cleveland,[6] observe Easter Monday as Dingus Day.[7][8] In the United States, Dingus Day celebrations are widespread and popular in Buffalo; Wyandotte and Hamtramck in Michigan; South Bend and La Porte in Indiana; and Hanover, New Hampshire. Wet Monday is also celebrated at Jonathan Edwards College, one of the residential colleges at Yale University, when each year the freshman class storms the college with water weapons, where upperclassmen are ready to defend the college and ensure no one goes home dry.[citation needed]

[edit] Buffalo

The world’s largest organized Dingus Day celebration occurs in Buffalo, New York. In Buffalo’s eastern suburbs and the city’s Historic Polonia District, Dingus Day is celebrated with a high level of enthusiasm.

Although Dingus Day was celebrated in traditional Polish neighborhoods of Buffalo dating back to the 1870s, modern Dingus Day in Buffalo had its start with the Chopin Singing Society. Judge Ann T. Mikoll and her late husband Theodore V. Mikoll held the first party at the Society’s clubrooms in the Buffalo Central Terminal. The Society left the East Side in the 1980s and moved to new clubrooms in nearby Cheektowaga, where the festival attracted a new generation of revelers. In recent years, the focus of Buffalo’s Dingus Day celebration has returned to the Historic Polonia District in the form of large parties at the Buffalo Central Terminal, St. Stanislaus – Bishop & Martyr Church, the Adam Mickiewicz Library and Dramatic Circle, and at many family-owned Polish taverns. The World’s First Dingus Day Parade, inaugurated in 2006, makes its way through the Polonia District from the Broadway Market to Buffalo Central Terminal. In 2008, the parade attracted more than 25,000 people.[9]

In 2006, two-time Grammy Award nominated Polka band Jerry Darlak & the Touch recorded the "Everybody’s Polish on Dingus Day" polka. "The polka is meant to capture the uniqueness of the Buffalo Dingus Day celebration," explained the song’s composer, Ray Barsukiewicz. Lyrics include references to pussy willows, the sprinkling of water, polka dancing and parties that last until daylight. That same year, Lenny Gomulka and the Chicago Push released the "Dingus Day in Buffalo Polka" to recognize Buffalo’s time-honored traditions. Gomulka is regarded as one of the nation’s premiere polka stars, having been nominated for 11 Grammy Awards.

In 2007, the world’s oldest working fireboat, the Edward M. Cotter, received the honor of being named the "World’s Largest Dingus Day Squirt Gun". "This could explains [sic] why the Cotter is painted red & white," said Marty Biniasz, alluding to the colors of the Polish flag and the Cotter’s current livery. "It’s only right that The Dingus Day Capital of the World should have the World’s Largest Squirt Gun. We are proud to now make Buffalo’s most-loved ship part of our Dingus Day Buffalo tradition."

[edit] Indiana

In South Bend, Indiana, the day marks the official beginning to launch the year’s political primary campaign season (particularly among Democrats)- often from within the West Side Democratic Club, the M.R. Falcons Club, and local pubs and fraternal halls. Notable politicos who have celebrated Dingus Day in South Bend include the late Robert F. Kennedy; former Governor Joe Kernan; Senator Evan Bayh; former Congressman and New York University President John Brademas; former Maryland Lt. Governor Kathleen Kennedy Townsend; former Congressman, 9/11 Commission member and current Ambassador to India Timothy J. Roemer; former President Bill Clinton; the famous philanthropist Thomas A. White; and the late Aloysius J. Kromkowski, a long time elected St. Joseph County public servant, for whom the "Al Kromkowski polka" is named.[10][11]

Robert F. Kennedy’s 1968 appearance was marked by his downtown rally attended by a crowd of over 6,000, his participation in the Dingus Day parade, and his leading of the crowds at the West Side Democratic Club in the traditional Polish well wishing song Sto Lat (phonetic: ‘sto laht’) which means "100 years". Indiana was RFK’s first primary and first primary victory, which set in motion momentum and victories that would have led to his nomination as the Democratic Party candidate for President had he not been assassinated.[10][11]

Starting in 2004, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology in Terre Haute, Indiana began celebrating Dingus Day at the request of South Bend students. The event includes free Polish sausage for students as well as a free concert.[10][11]

In Bloomington, Electric hair wigs, flashing neon beer logos and shotskis abound Monday at Yogi’s Grill and Bar as patrons celebrate Dyngus Day by partaking in Polish foods(pierogies, hard boiled eggs and polish sausage sandwiches)and mismatching fashions. Employees, customers and clowns alike take part in the festivities.

[edit] North Carolina

The Easter Monday holiday in North Carolina stemmed from the tradition in the early 20th century of state government workers taking the day off to attend the annual baseball game between North Carolina State College (Now North Carolina State University) and nearby Wake Forest College (now Wake Forest University and moved to Winston-Salem, NC). The holiday was enacted in 1935 and remained until 1988, when the official state holiday was moved to Good Friday to match the rest of the nation.

[edit] Texas and Southwest

Many Independent and other type School Districts and Higher Education institutions in Texas and other southern and southwestern states do not conduct classes on Easter Monday, although it is not an official State of Texas holiday. Many, but not all Texas School Districts follow this practice. As many of the same Independent School Districts also do not attend classes on Good Friday, a mini-Spring Break of four days is often the result.

[edit] Elsewhere in the world

[edit] Official holiday

Easter Monday is an official holiday in the following countries — Nations on this list indicated as "Eastern Christian" observe Easter according to the Julian Calendar reckoning used in Eastern Christianity which differs most years from the Gregorian Calendar rekconing used in Western Christianity.

[edit] See also

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ and those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Byzantine Rite

[edit] References

  1. ^ http://www.holytrinitymission.org/books/english/liturgics_averky_e.htm#_Toc104768207
  2. ^ Типико́нъ сiесть уста́въ (Title here transliterated into Russian; actually in Church Slavonic) (The Typicon which is the Order), Москва (Moscow, Russian Empire): Синодальная типография (The Synodal Printing House), 1907, p. 468
  3. ^ Easter Monday in Germany
  4. ^ (German) Partikularnorm Nr. 15 der Deutschen Bischofskonferenz. Accessed 2009-04-08.
  5. ^ Asiedu, Dita (2004-04-12). "Easter Monday Radio Prague special". Český rozhlas 7. Radio Praha. http://www.radio.cz/en/article/52649. Retrieved 2009-05-09.
  6. ^ Heaton, Michael (2011-04-22). "Come Out Next Monday Out [sic] for Cleveland’s First Annual Dingus Day". The Plain Dealer. http://www.cleveland.com/ministerofculture/index.ssf/2011/04/come_out_next_monday_out_for_c.html. Retrieved 2011-04-26.
  7. ^ "Dingus Day USA". DingusDay.com. http://www.Dingusdaybuffalo.com/Dingusdayusa.html. Retrieved 2011-04-26.
  8. ^ "What is Dingus Day?". DingusDay.com. http://www.Dingusdaybuffalo.com/whatisDingusday.html. Retrieved 2011-04-26.
  9. ^ Borsa, John. Buffalo is Unofficial Dingus Day Capital. WKBW-TV. 14 April 2009.
  10. ^ a b c Archives, National Center for Urban Ethnic Affairs[clarification needed]
  11. ^ a b c Colwell, Jack (2009-04-12). "The Dingus Day Tradition Continues" (fee required). South Bend Tribune. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/southbendtribune/access/1731307421.html?FMT=ABS. Retrieved 2011-04-26.
  12. ^ Easter Monday in the United Kingdom
  13. ^ Easter Monday in the Netherlands
  14. ^ "Public Holidays Act, 1994 (36 of 1994, South Africa)" (PDF). 1994-12-07. http://www.info.gov.za/acts/1994/a36-94.pdf. Retrieved 2006-04-05.

[edit] External links

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Links to related articles

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Holy Week

Lazarus Saturday ·Palm Sunday ·Holy Monday ·Holy Tuesday ·Holy Wednesday ·Maundy Thursday ·Good Friday ·Black Saturday ·Easter Sunday ·Bright Monday

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Public holidays in Australia

New Year’s Day ·Australia Day ·Good Friday ·Easter Saturday ·Easter Monday ·Anzac Day ·Queen’s Birthday ·Labour Day ·Christmas Day ·Boxing Day

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Public holidays in Canada

Nationwide statutory holidays

New Year’s Day ·Good Friday ·Canada Day ·Labour Day ·Christmas Day

Statutory holidays for federal employees

Easter Monday ·Victoria Day ·Thanksgiving ·Remembrance Day ·Boxing Day

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Family Day/Louis Riel Day/Islander Day ·Quebec National Holiday ·Memorial Day (Newfoundland and Labrador) ·August Civic Holiday ·Remembrance Day

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Public holidays in Hong Kong

New Year’s Day ·Lunar New Year (3 days)  ·Ching Ming Festival ·Good Friday ·The day following Good Friday ·Easter Monday ·The Birthday of the Buddha ·Labour Day ·Tuen Ng Festival ·Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Establishment Day · The day following the Chinese Mid-Autumn Festival ·National Day · Chung Yeung Festival · Christmas Day ·The first weekday after Christmas Day

Cancelled: Birthday of Her Majesty The Queen ·Liberation Day · Double Ten Day ·Remembrance Day

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Public holidays in New Zealand

New Year’s Day ·January 2 ·Waitangi Day ·Good Friday ·Easter Sunday ·Easter Monday ·Anzac Day ·Queen’s Birthday ·Labour Day ·Christmas Day ·Boxing Day

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